The Chaos Theory

Chaos theory is  popularized by Lorenz’s butterfly effect: “does the flap of a butterfly’s
wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas?” Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions (From wikipedia).

It is actually not new and this ideal can be found in some famous Mathematician quotes:

“We ought then to consider the present state of the universe as the effect of its previous
state and as the cause of that which is to follow. An intelligence that, at a given instant,
could comprehend all the forces by which nature is animated and the respective situation of the beings that make it up, if moreover it were vast enough to submit these data to analysis, would encompass in the same formula the movements of the greatest bodies of the universe and those of the lightest atoms. For such an intelligence nothing would be
uncertain, and the future, like the past, would be open to its eyes.” (Laplace, 1814)

“There is a maxim which is often quoted, that ‘The same causes will always produce the
same effects.’ To make this maxim intelligible we must define what we mean by the same
causes and the same effects, since it is manifest that no event ever happens more that once,so that the causes and effects cannot be the same in all respects. […]
There is another maxim which must not be confounded with that quoted at the beginning of this article, which asserts ‘That like causes produce like effects’. This is only true when
small variations in the initial circumstances produce only small variations in the final state
of the system. In a great many physical phenomena this condition is satisfied; but there are other cases in which a small initial variation may produce a great change in the final state of the system, as when the displacement of the ‘points’ causes a railway train to run into another instead of keeping its proper course.” (Maxewell, 1876)

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