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Introduction Particle model of ideal gas This java simulation use 1 to 200 particles to simulate the particle of ideal gas. Each particle has the same speed moving in random direction. Piston will move down due to the gravity and move up because collision from particles. You can change the velocity and pressure with the slider bar Try to estimate the number of particle per cubic centimeter and compare to the number of particle in this simulation. Explain why the volume in the simulation is changing all the time. New Model customized by lookang for the following: Assumptions of ideal gas 1. The molecules in the gas can be considered small hard spheres. 2. All collisions between gas molecules are elastic and all motion is frictionless (no energy is lost in collisions or in motion). 3. Newton’s laws apply. 4. The distance between molecules on average is much larger than the size of the molecules. 5. The gas molecules are constantly moving in random directions with a distribution of speeds. 6. There are no attractive or repulsive forces between the molecules or the surroundings. Additional option in applet to change elastic to inelastic (i.e. coefficient of restitution), p-V, p-T and V-T graphs Intro Page Based on the original applet Designed by Fu-Kwun Hwang New Model customized by lookang for the Ejs Open Source Ideal Gas Model based on Kinetic Theory of Gas author This java applet was created by Fu-Kwun Hwang with Easy Java Simulation (Ejs) from Francisco remixed version by lookang;topicseen#msg5504  


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Software Requirements


Android iOS Windows MacOS
with best with Chrome Chrome Chrome Chrome
support full-screen? Yes. Chrome/Opera No. Firefox/ Samsung Internet Not yet Yes Yes
cannot work on some mobile browser that don't understand JavaScript such as.....
cannot work on Internet Explorer 9 and below



Fu-Kwun Hwang; Francisco (Paco) Esquembre; lookang

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Learning Outcomes

  1. the variation of gas pressure with temperature (Volume is constant)
  2. the variation of gas pressure with volume (Temperature is constant)
  3. the variation of the volume of gas with temperature (Pressure is constant)

Prior Knowledge Activation

Teacher active prior knowledge by reminding students that earlier in Chapter 7, they had studied about pressure and in today’s lesson, they were going to take the concept of pressure further to understand what gave rise to a gas pressure.

Trigger Activity

A trigger activity, the teacher had asked for two volunteers to inflate two balloons. After the balloons were inflated, students were told that the balloons could also had been blown up using a hand or foot pump. A picture of a foot pump with a pressure gauge was shown to the students, and the teacher suggests if it is possible that the balloon had been inflated using the pump, the pressure gauge would register a pressure reading, and would that be similar to the case where car tyres were pumped at petrol kiosks and the pressure meters would read the pressure of the air in the tyres?

Analogy Activity

Analogy activity was conducted through another student volunteer where the student would represent the wall of the container and a ping pong ball would represent an air molecule. The ping pong ball was gently thrown at the student’s body, and the student experienced an impact, and hence experienced a force. Now if the ball was thrown at the student with greater speed, the impact would be greater and the force would be greater. It was then explained to students that what gave rise to a gas pressure was the collisions of the air molecules with the walls of the container containing the air. As there were numerous collisions between the air molecules and the wall, an average force was exerted on the wall. The force per unit area gave rise to the pressure exerted by the molecules on the walls of the container.

Exploration Activity

In the next part of the lesson, the teacher assigned each group to look into a specific exploration task . Within each task, there was a segment for individual exploration where the students followed the instructions on the worksheet to make individual observations on how changing certain parameters of temperature, pressure or volume would change other parameters, and a segment for group exploration where the students would come together and use their individual findings to explain in molecular terms the how and why of those changes. The group would then share their explanations online. The group then nominated a member to present their answers to the class, and the teacher would facilitate the learning by correcting the explanations, as well as adding on to the answers.

Other Related Resources

  1. Gas Property Lab by PhET
  2. Flipped Video   Lecture 11.1 Ideal Gas Equation by Andreas Dewanto
  3.  Lecture 11.2 Kinetic Theory Of Ideal Gas by Andreas Dewanto
  4.  Lecture11 3 WorkByIdealGas by Andreas Dewanto

Explore how the volume of a gas affects pressure, (constant temperature, isothermal). 

Gases can be compressed into smaller volumes. How does compressing a gas affect its pressure?

Run the model, then change the volume of the containers and observe the change in pressure. The moving wall converts the effect of molecular collisions into pressure and acts as a pressure gauge. What happens to the pressure when the volume changes?

Note: Although the atoms in this model are in a flat plane, volume is calculated using 0.1 nm as the depth of the container.


Investigate the relationship between temperature and the volume of a gas, (constant pressure, isobaric)

This model contains gas molecules on the left side and a barrier that moves when the volume of gas expands or contracts, keeping the pressure constant. Run the model and change the temperature. Why does the barrier move when the temperature changes?

Note: Although the atoms in this model are in a flat plane, volume is calculated using 0.1 nm as the depth of the container.

Consider how temperature affects the pressure exerted by a gas, constant volume, isochoric)

Run the model and change the temperature. What happens to the pressure when the temperature changes?


Explore how the volume of a gas is related to the number of gas molecules.

The model contains gas molecules under constant pressure. The barrier moves when the volume of gas expands or contracts. Run the model and select different numbers of molecules from the drop-down menu. What is the relationship between the number of molecules and the volume of a gas?

Note: Although the atoms in this model are in a flat plane, volume is calculated using 0.1 nm as the depth of the container.


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