## Topics

Measurement of length and time

## Description

Play with the Micrometer Model. Test what you've learned by trying the input field.

Micrometers use the principle of a screw to amplify small distances that are too small to measure directly into large rotations of the screw that are big enough to read from a scale. The accuracy of a micrometer derives from the accuracy of the thread form that is at its heart. The basic operating principles of a micrometer are as follows:

The amount of rotation of an accurately made screw can be directly and precisely correlated to a certain amount of axial movement (and vice-versa), through the constant known as the screw's lead. A screw's lead is the distance it moves forward axially with one complete turn (360°). (In most threads [that is, in all single-start threads], lead and pitch refer to essentially the same concept.)

With an appropriate lead and major diameter of the screw, a given amount of axial movement will be amplified in the resulting circumferential movement.

The micrometer has most functional physical parts of a real micrometer.

Frame (Orange)

The C-shaped body that holds the anvil and barrel in constant relation to each other. It is thick because it needs to minimize expansion, and contraction, which would distort the measurement. The frame is heavy and consequently has a high thermal mass, to prevent substantial heating up by the holding hand/fingers. has a text 0.01 mm for smallest division of instrument has a text 2 rounds = 100 = 1.00 mm to allow association to actual micrometer

Anvil (Gray)

The shiny part that the spindle moves toward, and that the sample rests against.

Sleeve / barrel / stock (Yellow)

The stationary round part with the linear scale on it. Sometimes vernier markings.

Lock nut / lock-ring / thimble lock (Blue)

The knurled part (or lever) that one can tighten to hold the spindle stationary, such as when momentarily holding a measurement.

Screw

(not seen) The heart of the micrometer It is inside the barrel.

Spindle (Dark Green)

The shiny cylindrical part that the thimble causes to move toward the anvil.

Thimble (Green)

The part that one's thumb turns. Graduated markings.

Ratchet (Teal)

(not shown ) Device on end of handle that limits applied pressure by slipping at a calibrated torque.

This applet has an object (Black)

with slider on left top to control the y-motion of the object into the anvil and spindle (jaws), the graphics also allows drag action.

with slider on left bottom to control the x-size of the object into the anvil and spindle (jaws).

On the left bottom slider is the zero error control to allow of exploring with if the micrometer has either +0.15 mm (max) or -0.15mm (min) zero error. The are check boxes:

hint: guide lines and arrows to indicate the region of interest plus the accompanying rationale for the answer.

answer: shows the measurement d = ??? mm

lock: allows simulating of the lock function in real micrometer which disable changes to the position of the spindle then by the measurement is unchangeable.

On the bottom there is a green slider to control the position of the spindle, drag on any part of the view also drags the spindle.

There is 2 buttons left and right fine control to allow for single incremental change of the measurement, to allow learners to sense the rotation simulation of the spindle with the many lines to simulate the coarse pattern to increase friction between fingers and on the thimble and ratchet.

The reset button restores learning environment to default setting

## Research

arXiv:1408.3803 [pdf]
Vernier caliper and micrometer computer models using Easy Java Simulation and its pedagogical design feature-ideas to augment learning with real instruments
Loo Kang Wee, Hwee Tiang Ning
Comments: 8 pages, 8 figures, Physics Education journal
Subjects: Physics Education (physics.ed-ph); Instrumentation and Detectors (physics.ins-det)
https://youtu.be/jHoA5M-_1R4

## Video

https://youtu.be/I-RZxhyZVio

## Sample Learning Goals

(g) describe how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy by means of tapes, rules, micrometers and calipers, using a vernier scale as necessary.

## Version:

### Translations

Code Language Translator Run

### Software Requirements

SoftwareRequirements

 Android iOS Windows MacOS with best with Chrome Chrome Chrome Chrome support full-screen? Yes. Chrome/Opera No. Firefox/ Samsung Internet Not yet Yes Yes cannot work on some mobile browser that don't understand JavaScript such as..... cannot work on Internet Explorer 9 and below

### Credits

Fu-Kwun Hwang; lookang; Wolfgang Christian

## Apps

### Topics

Measurement of length and time

### Description

Play with the Micrometer Model. Test what you've learned by trying the input field.

Micrometers use the principle of a screw to amplify small distances that are too small to measure directly into large rotations of the screw that are big enough to read from a scale. The accuracy of a micrometer derives from the accuracy of the thread form that is at its heart. The basic operating principles of a micrometer are as follows:

The amount of rotation of an accurately made screw can be directly and precisely correlated to a certain amount of axial movement (and vice-versa), through the constant known as the screw's lead. A screw's lead is the distance it moves forward axially with one complete turn (360°). (In most threads [that is, in all single-start threads], lead and pitch refer to essentially the same concept.)

With an appropriate lead and major diameter of the screw, a given amount of axial movement will be amplified in the resulting circumferential movement.

The micrometer has most functional physical parts of a real micrometer.

Frame (Orange)

The C-shaped body that holds the anvil and barrel in constant relation to each other. It is thick because it needs to minimize expansion, and contraction, which would distort the measurement. The frame is heavy and consequently has a high thermal mass, to prevent substantial heating up by the holding hand/fingers. has a text 0.01 mm for smallest division of instrument has a text 2 rounds = 100 = 1.00 mm to allow association to actual micrometer

Anvil (Gray)

The shiny part that the spindle moves toward, and that the sample rests against.

Sleeve / barrel / stock (Yellow)

The stationary round part with the linear scale on it. Sometimes vernier markings.

Lock nut / lock-ring / thimble lock (Blue)

The knurled part (or lever) that one can tighten to hold the spindle stationary, such as when momentarily holding a measurement.

Screw

(not seen) The heart of the micrometer It is inside the barrel.

Spindle (Dark Green)

The shiny cylindrical part that the thimble causes to move toward the anvil.

Thimble (Green)

The part that one's thumb turns. Graduated markings.

Ratchet (Teal)

(not shown ) Device on end of handle that limits applied pressure by slipping at a calibrated torque.

This applet has an object (Black)

with slider on left top to control the y-motion of the object into the anvil and spindle (jaws), the graphics also allows drag action.

with slider on left bottom to control the x-size of the object into the anvil and spindle (jaws).

On the left bottom slider is the zero error control to allow of exploring with if the micrometer has either +0.15 mm (max) or -0.15mm (min) zero error. The are check boxes:

hint: guide lines and arrows to indicate the region of interest plus the accompanying rationale for the answer.

answer: shows the measurement d = ??? mm

lock: allows simulating of the lock function in real micrometer which disable changes to the position of the spindle then by the measurement is unchangeable.

On the bottom there is a green slider to control the position of the spindle, drag on any part of the view also drags the spindle.

There is 2 buttons left and right fine control to allow for single incremental change of the measurement, to allow learners to sense the rotation simulation of the spindle with the many lines to simulate the coarse pattern to increase friction between fingers and on the thimble and ratchet.

The reset button restores learning environment to default setting

### For Students

A micrometer reading contains two parts:
• the first part is contributed by the main scale on the sleeve
• the second part is contributed by the rotating vernier scale on the thimble

The  image shows a typical micrometer screw gauge and how to read it. Steps:

• To obtain the first part of the measurement: Look at the image above, you will see a number 5 to the immediate left of the thimble. This means 5.0 mm. Notice that there is an extra line below the datum line, this represents an additional 0.5 mm. So the first part of the measurement is 5.0+0.5=5.5 mm.
• To obtain the second part of the measurement: Look at the image above, the number 28 on the rotating vernier scale coincides with the datum line on the sleeve. Hence, 0.28 mm is the second part of the measurement.

You just have to add the first part and second part of the measurement to obtain the micrometer reading: 5.5+0.28=5.78 mm.

To ensure that you understand the steps above,

here’s one more example:

First part of the measurement: 2.5 mm

Second part of the measurement: 0.38 mm

Final measurement: 2.88 mm

Now, we shall try with zero error.

The reading on the bottom is the measurement obtained and the reading at the top is the zero error. Find the actual measurement. (Meaning: get rid of the zero error in the measurement or take into account the zero error)

Measurement with zero error: 1.76 mm

Zero error: + 0.01 mm (positive because the zero marking on the thimble is below the datum line)

Measurement without zero error: 1.76(+0.01)=1.75 mm

### iCTLT2016 ePosterGuide Example

Video   iCTLT2016 Sample of ePoster by  lookang lawrence wee

### Research

arXiv:1408.3803 [pdf]
Vernier caliper and micrometer computer models using Easy Java Simulation and its pedagogical design feature-ideas to augment learning with real instruments
Loo Kang WeeHwee Tiang Ning
Comments: 8 pages, 8 figures, Physics Education journal
Subjects: Physics Education (physics.ed-ph); Instrumentation and Detectors (physics.ins-det)
https://youtu.be/jHoA5M-_1R4

### Sample Learning Goals

(g) describe how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy by means of tapes, rules, micrometers and calipers, using a vernier scale as necessary.

### Version:

1. http://weelookang.blogspot.sg/2015/07/ejss-micrometer-model.html?m=1 by Fu-Kwun Hwang and lookang JavaScript version blogpost
2. http://weelookang.blogspot.sg/2010/06/ejs-open-source-micrometer-java-applet.html  by Fu-Kwun Hwang and lookang Java version blogpost
3. http://iwant2study.org/lookangejss/01_measurement/ejs/ejs_model_Micrometer02.jar by Fu-Kwun Hwang and lookang Java version digital library
4. http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=567.0 by Fu-Kwun Hwang and lookang Java version
5. http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=683.0 by Fu-Kwun Hwang Java version
6. http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?action=post;topic=502.0 by Fu-Kwun Hwang Java version mirror here

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