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For Teachers


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pl Polish polski
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zh CN Chinese (CN ) 中文 (CN )
zh TW Traditional Chinese (Taiwan) 繁體中文 (台灣)

Software Requirements


Android iOS Windows MacOS
with best with Chrome Chrome Chrome Chrome
support full-screen? Yes. Chrome/Opera No. Firefox/ Samsung Internet Not yet Yes Yes
cannot work on some mobile browser that don't understand JavaScript such as.....
cannot work on Internet Explorer 9 and below



Andrew Duffy; lookang (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.); Tina Tan

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Pre-requisites/ Prior Knowledge

 Pupils should be able/already known how to:

  • Define what is meant by a light source.
  • Give examples of light sources in their everyday lives.

Sample Learning Goals

At the end of the lesson, pupils will be able to:

  • Determine how light travels.
  • Draw the path of light from a light source to our eyes.

For Teachers

  1. Recognise that an object can be seen when it reflects light or when it is a source of light.

  2. Recognise that a shadow is formed when light is completely or partially blocked by an object


Teacher will guide the pupils through the next part of the experiment.

Each group will be given:-

  1. a torchlight
  2. blank white paper
  3. measuring cylinder

Using the materials given and imagine that the torch is our primary light source, which is the Sun, investigate if the different position of the Sun in the sky at different times of the day have any effect on the shadow formed by an object.

What do you notice about the shadow as you move the torch following the path of the Sun?

Is the length of the shadow the same throughout the day?

Connected to Real Life

  1. Long shadows are cast in the morning and evening when the sun is low in the sky.

  2. Shadows are shortest at noon when the sun is directly overhead.

  3. Shadows always point in the opposite direction from the sun.


 Science - Light and Shadow - Basic - English bBodhaguru

 Gruppe Pilobolus Amazing Shadow Dance by thaitd85 

Guiding Questions:

Show YouTube videos on shadow puppetry. Begin by investigating and asking the following questions: What is a shadow puppet? How are they put together? How do they move?  Where have you seen shadows? Can you make shadows creatures with your own hands?  Hand Shadows II

first study is published in LAJPE:
Dr. M. Şahin BÜLBÜL


  1. an initial draft simulation for research by This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  2. an initial remix based on Andrew Duffy's work
  3. an original simulation by Andrew Duffy
  4. my dropbox copy of simulation by Andrew duffy and lookang
  5. server copy of simulation by Andrew duffy and lookang

Other Resources

  1. BBC
  2. by Loo Kang Wee with Ministry of Education 
  3. Producer: Mr Wee Loo Kang. This Digital Resource was designed by Ms Emily Lee. (Anderson Primary School).

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