05 Electricity and Magnetism

Big ideas1. Electrical charge is a property of matter. Electrons can be transferred from one place to another, but cannot be created or destroyed. 2. Electricity is one of the most common means by which we transfer energy; the electrical current (moving charges) brings us energy from power plants when there is a complete (closed) circuit from the power plants to our homes or to industries. 3. In a closed circuit, potential difference, current, and resistance are related; a change in any part of the circuit affects all other parts (almost) instantaneously. By using various electrical components in different arrangements, we are able to set up practical circuits to serve specific purposes. 4. Naturally occurring magnets, as well as man-made magnets, interact with other magnets or magnetic materials. A freely suspended magnet comes to rest pointing in the N-S direction due to its interaction with the Earth’s magnetic field. 5. Electricity and magnetism are related effects that have many applications in everyday life: moving charges (electric current) create magnetic fields; varying magnetic fields create electric fields (electromagnetic induction). 6. complex systems may also be better characterised by statistical averages (e.g. drift velocity, temperature) as these quantities may be more meaningful than the properties and behaviours of individual components (e.g. electron movement in a wire resulting in the current).

 Resources from http://mptl.eu/ adapted from E. Debowska University of Wroclaw (PL) R. Girwidz Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (DE) T. Greczylo University of Wroclaw (PL) A. Kohnle University of St. Andrews (UK) B. Mason University of Oklahoma (US) L. Mathelitsch University of Graz (AT) T. Melder University of Louisiana, Monroe (US) M. Michelini University of Udine (IT) I. Ruddock University of Strathclyde (UK) J. Silva Escola Secundária Henrique Medina (PT)

  1. British Energy: Electric Circuits http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/BritishEnergy/11-14/index.html Content: Circuits Ratings: Excellent Comments: This resource provides a focused, simple introduction to circuits suitable for primary and secondary students. The tutorial includes theory, virtual experiments, and self-tests for learners. The simulation is interactive, although it is a little hard to construct circuits at times. Many exploratory "challenge" problems are available for students to use, although one reviewer felt some problems were too scripted.
  2. Rutgers: Learning Cycles on Electricity and Magnetism http://www.islephysics.net/pt3/cycleindex.php?topicid=10 Content: Charges and Fields Ratings: Excellent/Very Good Comments: In this set of resources, the use of videos for student exploration in a learning cycle is noteworthy. The explorations provide the learning goal, prior knowledge, and one or more prediction and follow-up questions. Simple experiments using common materials are used. Some of these are experiments students could do although the videos can be used for pre-class or pre-lab purposes. The multimedia use is limited to videos but these are well designed for the learning goals.
  3. Open Source Physics: E&M Modeling Resources in Easy Java Simulations http://www.compadre.org/osp/search/search.cfm?gs=224&b=1&qc=Modeling Content: E&M, all topics Ratings: Excellent/Very Good Comments: This is a collection of different resources from different authors all using the Easy Java Simulations platform. The type and quality of the content vary, but most are quite good. Theory and student activities are embedded with many, but not all, of the EJS models. One noteworthy aspect of the EJS environment is that all models can be opened and modified as needed. This also makes clear the algorithms and approximations being made.
  4.  PhET: Electricity, Magnets, and Circuits http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/category/physics/electricity-magnets-and-circuits Content: E&M Fields and Circuits, Teaching Ideas Rating: Excellent/Very Good/Good Comments: This collection of materials provides a series of research-based interactive environments for students to explore different physics topics. Each of the simulations includes a number of lesson plans created by instructors and researchers on the PhET team. The reviewers had different opinions about the materials. All reviewers noted the open, flexible, and exploratory nature of the resources, although one reviewer felt a need for more structure. The concern was expressed that inaccurate student understandings could be reinforced by the models, although the PhET researchers study the student use of the simulations to avoid this problem. The algorithms and approximations used in the program are not given. In the E&M materials, there are four main noteworthy simulations (Circuits, Faraday, E&M Fields, E&M Waves) with multiple versions of some of these provided for the use of different audiences.
  5. Dead link on 20190619 CANU: DC Circuit Laboratory Simulation http://canu.ucalgary.ca/map/content/circuitbuilder/basic/simulate/practice/ Content: DC Circuits Ratings: Excellent/Good Comments: This circuit simulator is flexible so that any DC circuit can be simulated. Controls allow the change in parameters of any circuit element, although implementing changes is not always obvious. Unfortunately, the graphics and interface are somewhat dated using abstract symbols and a square virtual circuit board for the circuits design. There are no pedagogical resources except for the noteworthy demo/tutorial at http://canu.ucalgary.ca/map/content/circuitbuilder/basic/simulate/demo/
  6. Sign in required Amrita: Electricity and Magnetism Virtual Lab http://amrita.vlab.co.in/?sub=1&brch=192 Content: Magnetic Fields and Circuit Elements Ratings: Excellent/Fair Comments: This is a collection of tutorials that include theory and a simulated experiment, as well as a self-evaluation for students, test their understanding, exercises for exploring the experiment, and references. One reviewer felt the combination of theory, simulation, activities, and tutorials are very noteworthy and high quality. The second reviewer felt that the simulated experiments are too structured and “cookbook” for effective learning.
  7.  MIT: TEAL E&M Simulations http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/802TEAL3D/index.html Content: All of the E&M Ratings: Very Good Comments: This is a series of high-quality simulations and illustrations of all E&M topics. There is a particular focus on the visualization of fields. In many of the illustrations, there is little or no interactivity for the learner, but other simulations allow more exploration. Also of note, this is part of an Open Courseware course with all activities, labs, etc. (http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-02-physics-ii-electricity-and-magnetism-spring2007/index.htm) providing a complete didactic context for the multimedia resources
  8. Boston University: Easy Java Simulations http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/Ejs/ Content: E&M, DC & AC Circuits Ratings: Very Good Comments: This is a collection of physics explorations based on interactive simulations. The simulations are easy to run using the intuitive interface. The recommended explorations will help learners focus on the important physics the topics covered. The use of Easy Java Simulations provides users with the capabilities of viewing and modifying the source.
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